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Image from page 179 of „Japanische Stichblätter und Schwertzieraten : Sammlung Georg Oeder, Düsseldorf : [Katalog]“ (1916)
stadt ber
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: japanischestichb00vaut
Title: Japanische Stichblätter und Schwertzieraten : Sammlung Georg Oeder, Düsseldorf : [Katalog]
Year: 1916 (1910s)
Authors: Vautier, P Kümmel, Otto Oeder, Georg, 1846-
Subjects: Oeder, Georg, 1846- Sword guards Decoration and ornament
Publisher: Berlin : Oesterheld
Contributing Library: Boston Public Library
Digitizing Sponsor: Boston Public Library

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Text Appearing Before Image:
us Shakudö. In leichtemRelief ein Karpfen, einen Wasserfallhinaufschnellend, Einzelheiten inGoldeinlage. Bez.: HitotsuyanagiTomovoshi, Bewohner der Stadt Mitoi^ß {^— #P M # (4- Meister) undKakihaninGold. i.Hälfted.ig. Jahrh. TSUBA aus Eisen. In leichterhabenerArbeit und hohen Reliefeinlagen vonSilber und Shakudö das abgeschla-gene Haupt einer Frau unter blühen-dem Schilf. Bez.: HitotsuyanagiTomonaga — \^ ^ -^- %\ (Sohn desTomoyoshi IV, geb. 1832). TSUBA aus Eisen. In negativemSchattenriß Raben in kahlen Aesten.Bez.: Tokitsugu, Beicvlnier der StadtMito 7jC j3 ß-: W ^ 11^- Um lygo. TSUBA aus Eisen. In negativemSchattenriß eine Ratte und ein Ret-tich. Bez.: Tokihisa. Bewohner derStadt Mito. 7K P f± fj ^ 11^ FUCHIKASHIRA aus Eisen. In er-habenen Einlagen von Shibuichi, Sil-ber und Gold auf dem Kopfstück eineeinfallende Wildgans, auf der Zwingezwei fliegende Wildgänse. Bez.:Hattori Sadayoshi 3B^i|# (Schülerdes Tomoyoshi III) und Kakihan. 155 1442 —1447 MITO — SEKIJOKEN

Text Appearing After Image:
1442 1443 SEKIJOKEN-SCHULE 1442 TSUBA aus Eisen mit einer Languste in hohem ReHef; Einzelheiten ausGold. Bez.: Sckijökcii und gold-tauschierter Stempel Motozane (I)*wJ 73- Jahre, datiert Bimkwa 10 imZeichen des Hahns, 11. Monat (1813) X \t + m M il f ^f 4^ -b + H a # tt ff JC ^- (Abb.) 1443 KOZUKA aus roter Bronze. In Relief und Gravierung ein sitzender Rakan.Bez.: Sekijöken Motozane (I) nacheinem Bilde von Tsunenohit % fg P^iäcfi^TC^ und Kakihan. (Abb.) 1444 KOZUKA aus Shibuichi. In Flach- relief und Einlagen von Gold derchinesische Held Kwanu mit seinerHelmbarte. Bez.: Sekijöken Taizan(Öyama ? ) Motozane (l), 82 Jahre alt. # m $ f # dl X ^ ^f ^- A + ZL M- 1445 FUCHIKASHIRA aus Eisen. Das Kopfstück in Gestalt einer Oni-Maske in hohem Relief und Einlagenvon Gold und Shakudö, auf derZwinge ein Tengufächer aus Falken-federn und ein anderes Nögerät (Mo-tive des Nöspiels Kurama Tengu).Bez.: Sekijöken Taizan Motozane(I) nach der Maske des Kösoku-Rikishi 1446 FUCHIKASHIRA aus Sh

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Mur à Planches
stadt ber
Image by twiga269 ॐ FEMEN
BOARDRIDERS Quicksilver, Paris Cour Saint-Emilion

BOARDRIDERS PARIS BERCY
Centre Commercial Bercy Village
17 cour St Emilion
75012 Paris
Tel : 01 40 02 95 95

magasins.quiksilver-store.com/17180-boardriders-paris-ber…

Cool Hotel Berlin Mitte images

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Berlin – Radisson Blu Hotel – AquaDom 01
hotel berlin mitte
Image by Daniel Mennerich
The AquaDom in Berlin, Germany, is a 25 m (82 ft) tall cylindrical acrylic glass aquarium with built-in transparent elevator. It is located at the Radisson Blu Hotel in Berlin-Mitte.

The DomAquarée complex also contains a hotel, offices, a restaurant, and the aquarium Sea Life Centre.

The AquaDom was opened in 2004. It cost about 12.8 million Euro. The acrylic cylinder was produced by the U.S. company International Concept Management, Inc. It is now the main attraction of the Berlin Sea Life Centre.

The outside cylinder was manufactured on-site from twelve sets of panels sent from the factory; the inside cylinder for the elevator was installed as one piece after three sections of 5 panels each were bonded together next to the hotel. The Aquadom is the largest (by volume) acrylic cylindrical aquarium in the world, with a diameter of about 11 m (36 ft), and it is built on a 9 m (30 ft) tall foundation. Filled with 1,000,000 l (260,000 US gal) of water, it contains over 1,500 fish of 50 species. The feeding of the fish and the cleaning of the fish tank is performed daily by 3-4 divers. The fish need 8 kg (18 lb) of fish food.

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Hotel Pride
ice hotel berlin
Image by Hindrik S
Parkhotel Blub – Berlin
25th dec 2010

6 – Wolsztyn
ice hotel berlin
Image by TijsB
On the morning that we wanted to leave Berlin, it was extremely slippery on the road. After days of deep frost. It started to rain and there was black ice on the streets. I fell down when I walked towards the car to pack the car with luggage. There was a layer of about one centimetre of ice on the car. We decided to wait for another hour and have some more chats with Gabi. At about 1 PM we left Berlin and drove to Wolsztyn. The road to the border was good but after the Polish border the highway ended and we we continued an a small side road passing though little villages. It was just dark when we arived in Wolsztyn. Jeroen had reserved a room in a good hotel. They had written in the e-mail that our dog Zora needed a cap on her mouth. Zora did not like it and tried to take it off. But the receptionist was easy-going and allowed us to take it off again. We made walk athough the old town and had dinner in a popular local bar.

Cool Zu Schnell Autobahn images

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A9 alte Fahrbahteilung am Hienberg April 2006_015
zu schnell autobahn
Image by marlon_75
Auf das Jahr 1934 gehen erste Planungen der Strecke Nürnberg -Bayreuth zurück. Bereits im Herbst 1935 wurde mit dem Bau begonnen und im September 1937 wurde der Abschnitt Nürnberg – Fischbach – Bayreuth eröffnet.

04.09.1937 Verkehrsfreigabe der Teilstrecke Bayreuth – Nürnberg-Fischbach.

Nachdem im Jahr 1940 noch die 3,7 Kilometer lange zweite Richtungsfahrbahn im Bereich des Hienbergabstiegs bei Schnaittach dem Verkehr übergeben worden war, war die Strecke von Berlin bis München kompeltt durchgängig 2-streifig in beide Richtungen befahrbar.

01.10.1940 Verkehrsfreigabe der zweiten Richtungsfahrbahn Berlin – Nürnberg am Abstieg des Hienberg.

Aufgrund der topografischen Gegebenheiten gestaltete sich die Streckenführung im Bereich Schnaittach – Hormersdorf sehr schwierig.
Das Ziel war es auch hier die Strecke durch das Tal der Schnaittach und anschließend den steilen Aufstieg am Hienberg so gut wie möglich in die Landschaft einzubetten. Daher entschied man sich beide Richtungsfahrbahnen getrennt von einander westlich und östlich am Hienberg zu führen. Dafür nahm man auch Steigungen bis zu 7% in kauf.

Ab 1996 wurde der Abschnitt Schnaittach – Hormersdorf neu gebaut und 1998 in mehreren Abschnitten dem Verkehr übergeben.

Mit der Grenzöffnung im Herbst 1989 und der dann stetig ansteigenden Verkehrsbelastung entwickelte sich dieser Streckenabschnitt ohne Pannenstreifen schnell zu einem Nadelöhr.
Die starken Steigungen waren für Lkws kaum noch zu schaffen. Hier waren oft nur noch Geschwindigkeiten unter 60 km/h möglich.

Somit wurde Anfang der 1990er Jahre die Strecke neu trassiert. Unter Berücksichtigung einer moderneren Streckenführung entschloss man sich nun eine Talbrücke bei Schnaittach und im weiteren Verlauf die Hangbrücke Osternohe zu bauen und für die Trasse größere Erdbewegungen durchzuführen. Somit konnte die maximale Steigung bei 4,5% gehalten werden.

A9 alte Fahrbahteilung am Hienberg April 2006_026
zu schnell autobahn
Image by marlon_75
Auf das Jahr 1934 gehen erste Planungen der Strecke Nürnberg -Bayreuth zurück. Bereits im Herbst 1935 wurde mit dem Bau begonnen und im September 1937 wurde der Abschnitt Nürnberg – Fischbach – Bayreuth eröffnet.

04.09.1937 Verkehrsfreigabe der Teilstrecke Bayreuth – Nürnberg-Fischbach.

Nachdem im Jahr 1940 noch die 3,7 Kilometer lange zweite Richtungsfahrbahn im Bereich des Hienbergabstiegs bei Schnaittach dem Verkehr übergeben worden war, war die Strecke von Berlin bis München kompeltt durchgängig 2-streifig in beide Richtungen befahrbar.

01.10.1940 Verkehrsfreigabe der zweiten Richtungsfahrbahn Berlin – Nürnberg am Abstieg des Hienberg.

Aufgrund der topografischen Gegebenheiten gestaltete sich die Streckenführung im Bereich Schnaittach – Hormersdorf sehr schwierig.
Das Ziel war es auch hier die Strecke durch das Tal der Schnaittach und anschließend den steilen Aufstieg am Hienberg so gut wie möglich in die Landschaft einzubetten. Daher entschied man sich beide Richtungsfahrbahnen getrennt von einander westlich und östlich am Hienberg zu führen. Dafür nahm man auch Steigungen bis zu 7% in kauf.

Ab 1996 wurde der Abschnitt Schnaittach – Hormersdorf neu gebaut und 1998 in mehreren Abschnitten dem Verkehr übergeben.

Mit der Grenzöffnung im Herbst 1989 und der dann stetig ansteigenden Verkehrsbelastung entwickelte sich dieser Streckenabschnitt ohne Pannenstreifen schnell zu einem Nadelöhr.
Die starken Steigungen waren für Lkws kaum noch zu schaffen. Hier waren oft nur noch Geschwindigkeiten unter 60 km/h möglich.

Somit wurde Anfang der 1990er Jahre die Strecke neu trassiert. Unter Berücksichtigung einer moderneren Streckenführung entschloss man sich nun eine Talbrücke bei Schnaittach und im weiteren Verlauf die Hangbrücke Osternohe zu bauen und für die Trasse größere Erdbewegungen durchzuführen. Somit konnte die maximale Steigung bei 4,5% gehalten werden.

Cool Visit Berlin.de images

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Summer holiday 2014
visit berlin.de
Image by F.d.W.
Summer holiday 2014
In and around Berlin Germany

Berlin

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Jump to: navigation, search

This article is about the capital of Germany. For other uses, see Berlin (disambiguation).

Berlin

State of Germany
Clockwise: Charlottenburg Palace, Fernsehturm Berlin, Reichstag building, Berlin Cathedral, Alte Nationalgalerie, Potsdamer Platz and Brandenburg Gate.
Clockwise: Charlottenburg Palace, Fernsehturm Berlin, Reichstag building, Berlin Cathedral, Alte Nationalgalerie, Potsdamer Platz and Brandenburg Gate.

Flag of Berlin
Flag Coat of arms of Berlin
Coat of arms

Location within European Union and Germany
Location within European Union and Germany
Coordinates: 52°31′N 13°23′ECoordinates: 52°31′N 13°23′E

Country
Germany

Government

• Governing Mayor
Michael Müller (SPD)

• Governing parties
SPD / CDU

• Votes in Bundesrat
4 (of 69)

Area

• City
891.85 km2 (344.35 sq mi)

Elevation
34 m (112 ft)

Population (December 2013)[1]

• City
3,517,424

• Density
3,900/km2 (10,000/sq mi)

Demonym
Berliner

Time zone
CET (UTC+1)

• Summer (DST)
CEST (UTC+2)

Postal code(s)
10115–14199

Area code(s)
030

ISO 3166 code
DE-BE

Vehicle registration
B[2]

GDP/ Nominal
€109.2 billion (2013) [3]

NUTS Region
DE3

Website
berlin.de

Berlin (/bərˈlɪn/; German pronunciation: [bɛɐ̯ˈliːn] ( listen)) is the capital of Germany and one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.5 million people,[4] Berlin is Germany’s largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union.[5] Located in northeastern Germany on the River Spree, it is the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan Region, which has about 4.5 million residents from over 180 nations.[6][7][8][9] Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one third of the city’s area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers and lakes.[10]

First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1417), the Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918), the German Empire (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (1919–1933) and the Third Reich (1933–1945).[11] Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world.[12] After World War II, the city was divided; East Berlin became the capital of East Germany while West Berlin became a de facto West German exclave, surrounded by the Berlin Wall (1961–1989).[13] Following German reunification in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany, hosting 158 foreign embassies.[14]

Berlin is a world city of culture, politics, media, and science.[15][16][17][18] Its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations, and convention venues.[19][20] Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a highly complex public transportation network. The metropolis is a popular tourist destination.[21] Significant industries also include IT, pharmaceuticals, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology, construction, and electronics.

Modern Berlin is home to renowned universities, orchestras, museums, entertainment venues, and is host to many sporting events.[22] Its urban setting has made it a sought-after location for international film productions.[23] The city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, nightlife, contemporary arts, and a high quality of living.[24] Over the last decade Berlin has seen the upcoming of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene.[25]

20th to 21st centuries[edit]

Street, Berlin (1913) by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
After 1910 Berlin had become a fertile ground for the German Expressionist movement. In fields such as architecture, painting and cinema new forms of artistic styles were invented. At the end of World War I in 1918, a republic was proclaimed by Philipp Scheidemann at the Reichstag building. In 1920, the Greater Berlin Act incorporated dozens of suburban cities, villages, and estates around Berlin into an expanded city. The act increased the area of Berlin from 66 to 883 km2 (25 to 341 sq mi). The population almost doubled and Berlin had a population of around four million. During the Weimar era, Berlin underwent political unrest due to economic uncertainties, but also became a renowned center of the Roaring Twenties. The metropolis experienced its heyday as a major world capital and was known for its leadership roles in science, the humanities, city planning, film, higher education, government, and industries. Albert Einstein rose to public prominence during his years in Berlin, being awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921.

Berlin in ruins after World War II (Potsdamer Platz, 1945).
In 1933, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power. NSDAP rule effectively destroyed Berlin’s Jewish community, which had numbered 160,000, representing one-third of all Jews in the country. Berlin’s Jewish population fell to about 80,000 as a result of emigration between 1933 and 1939. After Kristallnacht in 1938, thousands of the city’s persecuted groups were imprisoned in the nearby Sachsenhausen concentration camp or, starting in early 1943, were shipped to death camps, such as Auschwitz.[39] During World War II, large parts of Berlin were destroyed in the 1943–45 air raids and during the Battle of Berlin. Around 125,000 civilians were killed.[40] After the end of the war in Europe in 1945, Berlin received large numbers of refugees from the Eastern provinces. The victorious powers divided the city into four sectors, analogous to the occupation zones into which Germany was divided. The sectors of the Western Allies (the United States, the United Kingdom and France) formed West Berlin, while the Soviet sector formed East Berlin.[41]

The Berlin Wall in 1986, painted on the western side. People crossing the so-called "death strip" on the eastern side were at risk of being shot.
All four Allies shared administrative responsibilities for Berlin. However, in 1948, when the Western Allies extended the currency reform in the Western zones of Germany to the three western sectors of Berlin, the Soviet Union imposed a blockade on the access routes to and from West Berlin, which lay entirely inside Soviet-controlled territory. The Berlin airlift, conducted by the three western Allies, overcame this blockade by supplying food and other supplies to the city from June 1948 to May 1949.[42] In 1949, the Federal Republic of Germany was founded in West Germany and eventually included all of the American, British, and French zones, excluding those three countries‘ zones in Berlin, while the Marxist-Leninist German Democratic Republic was proclaimed in East Germany. West Berlin officially remained an occupied city, but it politically was aligned with the Federal Republic of Germany despite West Berlin’s geographic isolation. Airline service to West Berlin was granted only to American, British, and French airlines.

The fall of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989. On 3 October 1990, the German reunification process was formally finished.
The founding of the two German states increased Cold War tensions. West Berlin was surrounded by East German territory, and East Germany proclaimed the Eastern part as its capital, a move that was not recognized by the western powers. East Berlin included most of the historic center of the city. The West German government established itself in Bonn.[43] In 1961, East Germany began the building of the Berlin Wall between East and West Berlin, and events escalated to a tank standoff at Checkpoint Charlie. West Berlin was now de facto a part of West Germany with a unique legal status, while East Berlin was de facto a part of East Germany. John F. Kennedy gave his "Ich bin ein Berliner" – speech in 1963 underlining the US support for the Western part of the city. Berlin was completely divided. Although it was possible for Westerners to pass from one to the other side through strictly controlled checkpoints, for most Easterners travel to West Berlin or West Germany prohibited. In 1971, a Four-Power agreement guaranteed access to and from West Berlin by car or train through East Germany.[44]

In 1989, with the end of the Cold War and pressure from the East German population, the Berlin Wall fell on 9 November and was subsequently mostly demolished. Today, the East Side Gallery preserves a large portion of the Wall. On 3 October 1990, the two parts of Germany were reunified as the Federal Republic of Germany, and Berlin again became the official German capital. In 1991, the German Parliament, the Bundestag, voted to move the seat of the (West) German capital from Bonn to Berlin, which was completed in 1999. Berlin’s 2001 administrative reform merged several districts. The number of boroughs was reduced from 23 to twelve. In 2006 the FIFA World Cup Final was held in Berlin.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin

Berlin Wall

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

For the chess opening variation, sometimes known as Berlin Wall, see Berlin Defence.

Page semi-protected

Berlin Wall

Berlinermauer.jpg
View from the West Berlin side of graffiti art on the wall in 1986. The wall’s "death strip", on the east side of the wall, here follows the curve of the Luisenstadt Canal (filled in 1932).

Berlin-wall-map.png
Map of the location of the Berlin Wall, showing checkpoints

General information

Type
Wall

Country
East Germany
Flag of East Berlin (1956-1990).svg East Berlin (Soviet-occupied sector of Berlin)

Coordinates
52.516111°N 13.376944°ECoordinates: 52.516111°N 13.376944°E

Construction started
13 August 1961

Dimensions

Other dimensions

Border length around West Berlin: 155 km (96 mi)
Border length between West Berlin and East Germany: 111.9 km (69.5 mi)
Border length between West and East Berlin: 43.1 km (26.8 mi)
Border length through residential areas in East Berlin: 37 km (23 mi)
Concrete segment of wall height: 3.6 m (12 ft)
Concrete segment of wall length: 106 km (66 mi)
Wire mesh fencing: 66.5 km (41.3 mi)
Anti-vehicle trenches length: 105.5 km (65.6 mi)
Contact/signal fence length: 127.5 km (79.2 mi)
Column track width: 7 m (7.7 yd)
Column track length: 124.3 km (77.2 mi)
Number of watch towers: 302
Number of bunkers: 20

Technical details

Size
155 km (96 mi)

Satellite image of Berlin, with the wall’s location marked in yellow

West and East Berlin borders overlaying a current road map (interactive map)

The Berlin Wall (German: Berliner Mauer) was a barrier that divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989,[1] constructed by the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) starting on 13 August 1961, that completely cut off (by land) West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin until it was opened in November 1989.[2] Its demolition officially began on 13 June 1990 and was completed in 1992. [3] The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls,[4] which circumscribed a wide area (later known as the "death strip") that contained anti-vehicle trenches, "fakir beds" and other defenses. The Eastern Bloc claimed that the wall was erected to protect its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the "will of the people" in building a socialist state in East Germany. In practice, the Wall served to prevent the massive emigration and defection that marked East Germany and the communist Eastern Bloc during the post-World War II period.

The Berlin Wall was officially referred to as the "Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart" (German: Antifaschistischer Schutzwall) by GDR authorities, implying that the NATO countries and West Germany in particular were "fascists."[5] The West Berlin city government sometimes referred to it as the "Wall of Shame"—a term coined by mayor Willy Brandt—while condemning the Wall’s restriction on freedom of movement. Along with the separate and much longer Inner German border (IGB), which demarcated the border between East and West Germany, it came to symbolize the "Iron Curtain" that separated Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.

Before the Wall’s erection, 3.5 million East Germans circumvented Eastern Bloc emigration restrictions and defected from the GDR, many by crossing over the border from East Berlin into West Berlin, from where they could then travel to West Germany and other Western European countries. Between 1961 and 1989, the wall prevented almost all such emigration.[6] During this period, around 5,000 people attempted to escape over the wall, with an estimated death toll of from 136[7] to more than 200[8] in and around Berlin.

In 1989, a series of radical political changes occurred in the Eastern Bloc, associated with the liberalization of the Eastern Bloc’s authoritarian systems and the erosion of political power in the pro-Soviet governments in nearby Poland and Hungary. After several weeks of civil unrest, the East German government announced on 9 November 1989 that all GDR citizens could visit West Germany and West Berlin. Crowds of East Germans crossed and climbed onto the wall, joined by West Germans on the other side in a celebratory atmosphere. Over the next few weeks, euphoric public and souvenir hunters chipped away parts of the wall; the governments later used industrial equipment to remove most of what was left. Contrary to popular belief the wall’s actual demolition did not begin until Summer 1990 and was not completed until 1992.[1] The fall of the Berlin Wall paved the way for German reunification, which was formally concluded on 3 October 1990.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin_Wall